Friday, April 4, 2008

Locative Case Meanings (Pali)

Time, Place, Situation, and Society

at place X
at time X
in situation X
in society X


about X
regarding X
in reference to X

Establishment, Confidence

established in X
confidence in X


on account of X
because of X



dhammā raññe
qualities in a king

Nāḷandāyaṃ viharanto
dwelling in Nālandā

rukkhamūle nisinnaṃ
seated at the root (foot) of a tree

devatā ākāse
deities in the sky


tasmiṃ samaye vedanaṃ vedeti
he feels a sensation on that occasion

vassānaṃ pachime māse
in the last month of the rainy season


tasmiṃ yaññe ... na rukkhā chijjimsu
in that sacrifice..ṇo trees were cut down

āpadāsu na vijahati
he does not abandon (him) in misfortune


Māgadhesu viharati
among the Maghadesans
(he lives in Maghada)


idam pi 'ssa hoti sīlasmiṃ
he has this regards (moral) character

citte cittānupassī viharati
with reference to the mind,
he lives observing the mind

knowledge of (about) phenomena

doubt about the doctrine

jīvite apekhaṃ
hope for life


pettike ṭhāne ṭhapesi
appointed (him) in his father's place

satipaṭṭhānesu supatiṭṭhitacitta
(whose) mind is well-stablished in the conditions of self-possession
(sati = mindfulness)


passano ahaṃ bhagavati
I have confidence in the fortunate one
(loc. sing. bhagavant)

dhamme pasannā
she has confidence in the doctrine

bhagavati brahmacariyaṃ caritvā
having lived the god-like life under the fortunate one


brahmaloke antarahito
vanished from God's world
(and appeared on earth)

The Locative Case (Sattamī) Narada

1. The Locative Case denotes the place
or time where anything is or happens

Manussā gharesu vasanti,
men live in houses.

Thāliyaŋ odanaŋ pacati
he cooks rice in a pot.

Khīresu jalaŋ
there is water in milk.

2. The Locative denotes also the time
when an action takes place

Tasmiŋ samaye
at that time.

Sāyaṇhasamaye āgato
he came in the afternoon.

Phussamāsamhā tīsu māsesu vesākhamāso, three months from Phussa month [i.e., after the month called Phussa] is the month of Vesākha.

Ito satasahassamhi kappe,
one hundred thousand aeons hence.

3. The reason is sometimes expressed
by the Locative

Dīpi cammesu haññate,
the tigers are killed on account of their skin.

Musāvāde pācittiyaŋ,
one commits a pācittiya offence, there is a

with regard to a lie or through falsehood.

4. The group or class from which a person or thing is distinguished or separated is put in the Locative; e.g.,

Manussesu khattiyo sūratamo,
the warrior is the bravest of men.

Addhikesu dhāvato sīghatamo,
the runner is the fastest of travellers.

Āyasmā Ānando arahantesu aññataro,
Venerable Ānanda is one of the Arahants.

5. The Locative or the Genitive is used
with the words adhipati, lord; dāyāda, heir;
issara, lord; kusala, skill; patibhū, bail; pasuta,
born of; sakkhi, witness; and sāmi, master; e.g.,

Lokasmiŋ or (lokassa) adhipati,
lord of the world.

Kammasmiŋ or (kammassa) dāyādo,
heir of action.

Paṭhaviyaŋ or (paṭhaviyā) issaro,
lord of the earth.

Gītasmiŋ or (gītassa) kusalo,
skill in singing.

Dassanasmiŋ or (dassanassa) paṭibhū,
surety for appearance.

Gosu or (gavaŋ) pasuto,
born of cows.

Adhikaraṇasmiŋ or (adhikaraṇassa) sakkhi, witness in a case.

Dhammasmiŋ or (Dhammassa) sāmi,
master of Truth.

(From Warder and Narada)

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